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常用的沼气提纯技术有哪些?

时间:2019-07-17
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目前沼气提纯工艺有变压吸附法(PSA)、水洗法、化学吸收法、膜分离法、选择分离法等,在目前世界范围内工艺较为成熟、应用相对较多的方法是变压吸附法(PSA)、化学吸收法(胺法净化)。下面沼气提纯设备厂家就给大家详细介绍一下!
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA), water washing, chemical absorption, membrane separation and selective separation are the current purification processes of biogas. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) and chemical absorption (amine purification) are the most mature and widely used methods in the world. The following biogas purification equipment manufacturers will give you a detailed introduction!
1、变压吸附法(PSA)
1. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA)
变压吸附法(PSA)是在加压条件下,利用沼气中的CH4、CO2以及N2在吸附剂表面被吸附的能力不同而实现分离气体成分的一种方法。组分的吸附量受压力及温度的影响,压力升高时吸附量增加,压力降低时吸附量减少;当温度升高时吸附量减小,温度降低时吸附量增加。变压吸附对气体来源的要求非常严格,H2S的存在会导致吸附剂性中毒,并且变压吸附要求气体干燥,所以变压吸附前要先脱除H2S和H2。
Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) is a method to separate gas components under pressure by using different adsorption capacities of CH4, CO2 and N2 in biogas on the surface of adsorbent. The adsorption capacity of components is affected by pressure and temperature. The adsorption capacity increases with the increase of pressure and decreases with the decrease of pressure. The adsorption capacity decreases with the increase of temperature and increases with the decrease of temperature. Pressure swing adsorption (PSA) requires very strict gas sources. The existence of H2S will lead to permanent poisoning of adsorbents. PSA requires gas drying. So H2S and H2 should be removed before PSA.
吸附材料在该技术中起到关键的作用,一般采用不同类型的活性炭、沸石、硅胶、氧化铝和分子筛作为吸附材料。不同的吸附材料对沼气的纯化效果各不相同。目前,以活性炭和分子筛为主的碳基吸附剂,在研究沼气提纯方面经常被使用。近年来出现的一些新型吸附材料,如有序介孔材料、胺修饰吸附剂和金属框架物(MOFs)对CO2具有很高吸附选择性,应用前景广阔,而且MOFs被认为是在CO2分离方面具有潜力。
Adsorption materials play a key role in this technology. Generally, different types of activated carbon, zeolite, silica gel, alumina and molecular sieve are used as adsorption materials. Different adsorption materials have different purification effects on biogas. At present, carbon-based adsorbents, mainly activated carbon and molecular sieve, are often used in the study of biogas purification. In recent years, some new adsorption materials, such as ordered mesoporous materials, amine-modified adsorbents and metal frameworks (MOFs), have high adsorption selectivity for CO2, and have broad application prospects. MOFs are considered to have potential in CO2 separation.
沼气提纯设备
2、化学吸收法
2. Chemical Absorption Method
化学吸收法是利用胺溶液将CO2从CH4中分离的方法,分离过程中CO2被吸收后进一步与胺溶液发生化学反应,通过加热完成胺溶液的再生。由于化学反应具有很强的选择性,而CH4被胺溶液吸收的量又非常低,所以这种方法CH4的损失率低于0.1%。该技术操作压力一般为1atm。
Chemical absorption is a method of separating CO2 from CH4 by using amine solution. In the process of separation, CO2 is absorbed and reacted with amine solution further. The regeneration of amine solution is completed by heating. Because of the strong selectivity of chemical reaction and the very low absorption of CH4 by amine solution, the loss rate of CH4 in this method is less than 0.1%. The operating pressure of this technology is generally 1 atm.
常用的胺溶液主要有乙醇胺(MEA)、二乙醇胺(DEA)和甲基二乙醇胺(MDEA)[13]。由于CO2被吸收后与胺溶液发生了化学反应,因此吸收过程可以在较低的压力条件下进行,一般情况下只需在沼气已有压力的基础上稍微提高一些压力即可。胺溶液的再生过程比较困难,需要160℃的温度条件,因此运行过程需要消耗大量的工艺用热,存在运行能耗高的弊端。此外,由于存在蒸发损失,运行过程需要经常补充胺溶液。
The commonly used amine solutions are ethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and methyl diethanolamine (MDEA) [13]. Because of the chemical reaction between CO2 and amine solution after absorption, the absorption process can be carried out under lower pressure. Generally, only slightly higher pressure is needed on the basis of the existing pressure of methane. The regeneration process of amine solution is very difficult and needs 160 C temperature. Therefore, the operation process needs to consume a lot of process heat, which has the disadvantage of high energy consumption. In addition, because of the evaporation loss, the ammonia solution needs to be replenished frequently during operation.
今天小编暂且先和大家聊到这里,希望本编文章能够帮助到您,如果您对此还有疑问,详情请咨询沼气提纯官网的客服人员:http://www.dh-gwsg.com
Today, Xiaobian will talk to you for a moment. I hope this article can help you. If you have any questions about this, please consult the customer service staff of the biogas purification website: http://www.dh-gwsg.com.
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